The Music Library of Jean-Baptiste Christophe Ballard, Sole Music Printer to the King of France, 1750 Inventory of his Grand Collection Brought to Light in E-Documentation in the Humanities, Series 1, Spring 2003.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Ballard family of music printers held exclusive royal privilege for
music in France for over 200 years beginning in 1551 with their
with Adrian Le Roy. Jean-Christophe Ballard's vast
of musical works contained in his music library, listed in his
after death, numbers almost 1050. Described meticulously
45 pages, it is set along side the 100 pages of music titles found in
music store. Surprisingly, his library includes a stunning
of Italian music by both well-know and obscure composers which accounts
some 40 percent of the collection. Although his
library spans three centuries, the 17th century collection represents
central component. This study presents the complete
transcription of the music library inventory with statistical
collection analysis and commentary
as well as eleven plates of document illustrations. Additional
documents on the Ballard family recently discovered by the author add
historical data. Together, these shed new light not only on music
during the French Baroque, but importantly, on Ballard's musical vision
an expression of his personal taste and as a reflection of French taste
to his time.
From the perspective of today's world of digital media and open access to publish via the Web, it seems difficult to fathom the level of control and influence the Ballard family was able to exert on music printing in France. Proceeding from the intersection of historical musicology and archival research, this study, which stems from my research at the Archives Nationales, is based upon unpublished documents of the Minutier Central concerning the Ballard family of music printers. Given this large corpus of new detailed information, I have chosen to focus on the inventory of Jean-Baptiste Christophe Ballard's personal library, a 45 page document annexed to his inventory after death and presented here in complete transcription; the 91 page title list and description of Ballard's music store and shop, also annexed to the inventory, no doubt merits future publication. Further, other documents from the Minutier concerning his family relationships are explored. Importantly, taken together, they shed new light on Ballard's musical perspectives. In view of these purposes, references to secondary sources are limited, as the article does not attempt to be a broad study of the Ballard printing enterprise, but rather, it examines its subject through the lens of these specific documents which in of themselves enrich our knowledge of Ballad's music enterprise in France.
Enjoying a virtual monopoly for music printing in the French capital for more than two centuries by virtue of exclusive privilege as printers of music to the Kings of France, this dynasty began in 1551 with Robert Ballard's association with Adrian Le Roy under Henry II and continued through most of the reign of Louis XV. The social institutions controlling the printing trade, as with other trades, were maintained by communities of the "arts et métiers" that were sanctioned by the King and to which official membership was requisite and extremely limited. Often, marrying the daughter of a master artisan was the surest means of acceptance (1). Given the role of family relationships, the Ballard family took advantage of this social system by establishing family ties to leading printers and publishers such as Le Roy, Boivin, Montéclair and Dumesnil.
Although Ballard's music library spans three centuries, the 17th century collection represents its central component. Indeed, as a core collection, it serves as a fulcrum between earlier 16th century practice, and emerging practices of the 18th century. 17th century works dominate the chanson repertoire, as they do the Italian collection, and account for about half of the titles listed under methods and treatises. Similarly, Lully's works are at the heart of the opera collection. Ballard's print shop too was retrospective; his printing presses, characters and equipment were those inherited from his father's 17th century shop and he continued to print according to 17th century practice throughout his career. The social conventions governing Ballard's music business and bestowing his status as sole printer to the King were emblematic of the Ancien Regime at its height of influence, which steadily diminished in the 18th century. Although he died in 1750, Ballard's musical vision remained steeped in le bon goût of the early baroque.
The public face of the Ballard music printing business is well recognized through, for example, its prints of Lully's operas, treatises, such as Hotteterre's Les Principes de flûte and countless recueils of chansons. By contrast, the private music library of Jean-Baptiste Christophe Ballard (who is referred to simply as Ballard, or, in cases where he might be confused with other members of the Ballard family, as J.B.C.), opens a window on his personal taste in music and a means of understanding his sense of le bon gout. What seems quite surprising, is that his collection of Italian music accounts for a major portion of titles which is comparable in scope to his French collection. Ballard admired Italian music and collected it broadly. By the late 17th century, Italian musical style was being hotly debated in France; comparisons of French and Italian musical taste appear in numerous writings of the period lauding one style or the other. Several of these publications are found in Ballard's library. Given his close association with leading musicians and royal musical institutions, most notably the Opéra, his library stands as an important source of documentation and an invaluable tool for identifying Italian composers who were likely performed in Paris.
The noted French musicologists, Jean Duron and Jean Lionnet, each have written about Italian music in France at the end of the 17th century (2). Duron points out that the inventory of Nicolas Mathieu (d. 1706), curé of St. André des Arts in Paris, lists works performed there and "describes with exceptional accuracy for the time the contents of Mathieu's music library." Although, it specifies the names of French composers, for the Italian repertoire, it notes only "a package of motets of different authors from Italy." This leaves in question the identity of the Italian composers performed there. Duron concludes that, "the history of the presence of Italian music in France during the last quarter of the century remains, in great part, to be discovered." Both Duron and Lionnet cite the catalog of Sébastien de Brossard's music library (which he collected during his years in Strasbourg), as it includes a significant number of Italian composers, about 300, and stands as one of the few such inventories known. This apparent scarcity of sources for music library collections of the 17th and early 18th centuries underscores the significance of Ballard's music library (which by contrast to Brossard's represents Parisian taste), and the value of presenting it here in complete transcription.
The 1750 inventory after death of Ballard presents an in depth picture of the Ballard music printing and publishing enterprise (3). Its 191 pages incorporate several separate inventories pertaining to the music business (fonds de musique) and include the shop [magazin] and boutique, the printing presses and characters, plates for engraving, and most importantly, Ballard's personal music library [bibliothèque de musique] housed in two armoires. As such, it stands apart from earlier and subsequent inventories of the Ballard family, as the only one to contain a personal music library, in addition to the music that the firm printed and sold. Its representation of music published over two centuries, from about 1550 to 1750, spans the major period of production of Ballard music printers, suggesting that the collection was developed over that period of time cumulating with each successor to the business.
Ballard took charge of the music business at a moment when instrumental music was emerging as a separate art form along with new models of musical instruments, especially the winds, and newly introduced instrumental methods and theoretical works. These were eagerly sought by musicians learning performing techniques of the new art. Instrumental works that Ballard published by composers such as Marin Marais and Jacques Hotteterre le Romain, were at the heart of creating a solo instrumental voice featuring the flute, violin and viole. Publications of chamber music, now liberated from opera, became a major part of Ballard's stock. A strong interest in collecting and publishing instrumental music is reflected in his library for both French and Italian titles. In fact, instrumental music, especially for violin, both sacred and secular, makes up the lion's share of Italian titles.
Ballard married Catherine Colin on 16 November 1698 (3). In consideration of the marriage, according to the customs of Pairs, his father made him an equal partner in the family business. The document of Société details the terms of this father-son partnership, and presents an inventory of the magazin. Comparison of the 1698 list with that of 1750, emphasizes how dramatically the number of titles and scope of works had increased during this half century. Of note, is a dramatic rise of instrumental music, (chamber and orchestral), methods and theoretical works, and the introduction of solo instrumental music featuring strings and wind instruments, among which, the transverse flute emerges as a leading solo voice.
Only a few days before the marriage on 11 November, Ballard and his father, Christophe Ballard, who were living together at the Montparnasse house on the rue Saint Jean de Beauvais, had formed a Société establishing an equal partnership in the music printing business and store, although he had been working with his father from about 1696 (4) Ballard's marriage contract reveals that he brought to the marriage his half of the music printing business and shop that he then exercised with his father as well as half of his household, debts and monies owed. His ownership was based on the terms of the Société Ballard père et fils. Significantly, the document of Société contains an inventory of the tools and materials for printing under the heading "Inventory of the characters of music and plainchant in usage in the only printing shop for music in the kingdom," followed by an inventory of the "Catalogue of the books of music, plainchant and others that are sold in Paris chez M. Christophe Ballard, only printer to the King for music rue Saint Jean de Beauvais at Montparnasse 1698, with the number of the said books found in the shop of the said Sieur Ballard" (Plate I). The list presents no real surprises in that it represents the standard French repertoire of the period. Few instrumental works are found along side the large repertoire of vocal works, both sacred and secular, which underscores the newness of this genre. The instrumental works listed are as given below:
Fantaisie de Métru pour la viola, 100 copies.Italian music is represented only by 120 copies of the motets of Lorenzani, no doubt stemming from his residence in France in service of the court from 1678 to 1693, and his French editions of Italian airs and trios in the Italian manner.
A document of sale dated 17 July 1714 describes Ballard as "only printer to the King." Signed "Ballard fils," it establishes that by this date he had already taken charge of the firm. On this occasion, Madelaine Lambert, Lully's widow, pressured by her children, sold 2821 volumes of her husband's operas remaining in her possession to Ballard for the sum of 5154 livres. They had been in storage for some 27 years, since Lully's death in 1687.
A year later, at the death of his father, on 28 May 1715, the King granted Ballard's son, Christophe-Jean François Ballard, the survivance of his post, stating that "our printer for music, vocal as well as instrumental upon retirement so that his said father makes in his favor on the condition of survivance that the said Ballard fils exercises conjointly with his father."
On 16 June 1739, two weeks before his son's marriage to Dlle. Marie-Anne Geneviève Paulus Dumesnil, the Société Ballard père et fils was formed to set the conditions and financial arrangements under which they would work together; these were then inserted in the marriage contract:
and Dlle. Marie Anne-Geneviève Paulus Dumesnil living in Paris rue Saint Jean de Latran in the said parish of Saint Etienne Dumont, daughter of age of deceased Sieur Gilles Paulus Dumesnil printer, bookseller in Paris, formerly associate of the Community [of printers] and of Dlle. Madeleine Le Mercier, his wife; for her and in her name of the other hand.
In regard to the property of Sieur the future husband, they consent to the sum of 20,000 livres of which the said Sieur and Dame, his mother and father make a gift to him during their life and in advance of their future succession. By the agreement made and past between them the said Sieur his father associated with him for half in all the functions of their posts and in the business of his printing and store that become by this common means between them from the day of the said agreement, as a consequence of the sale that the said Sieur Ballard père with the consent of Madame his wife, made to the said Sieur future husband his son, and the half of all the business of books and agreements made in this matter with different authors, together with half of his printing business, of the stamps as well as his tools serving it even the shelves, counter and generally all that is kept there under three different keys, as much as the third and fourth floors of the house of Montparnasse where the said Sieur and Dlle Ballard and their son live, and in which is the printing business, as in the two stores in the said house where the books en blanc or bound or brochés are kept and also those that are in the grand magazin des Bernadins of this city, of which all, conforming with the agreement, there must be made from now, in three or four months, an general accounting in duplicate, of which one will be given to the said future husband; the said Sieur Ballard père has reserved to his particular profit only the books in plainchant and the characters, notes and tools that they require, also he brings to the agreement, the agreed price for the said half between the said Sieur and Dame Ballard father and mother and the said Sieur their son has been fixed at the sum of 75,000 livres, from which the Sieur and Dame father and mother consented that there be to the profit of the said Sieur future husband their son, the sum of 20,000 livres in advance of their future succession and in order to equalize a similar sum given in gift to each of the dames Trumeau and Boivin, sisters of the said Sieur future husband.
The accounting of receipts (one for the store and one for the printing business), appears following the listing of titles. "The total of general receipts of the Société de Sieurs Ballard, père et fils during 21 months, finishing the first of April 1741, reaches the sum of 36,317.11 livres," not including monies owed by Messieurs and Dames Boivin, Le Clerc, Lemaire and Clérambault. General expenses total 17,446.17 livres producing a profit of 18,870.14 livres which was divided equally between father and son (9435.7 livres each).
François Boivin married Ballard's daughter, Catherine Elisabeth Ballard, on 2 July 1724. (Plates II and III.) Just a few days earlier, on 17 June, he ended the Société for printing and selling music at the sign of the règle d'or on the rue St. Honoré, that had been established under private signature 15 July 1721 between himself and the composer, Michel Pignolet de Montéclair, his uncle. The merchandise was evaluated at 29,500 livres which would be divided equally between them. In recognition of his nephew's marriage to Dlle. Ballard, he made a gift of 9000 livres. An inventory of the items belonging to Montéclair, annexed to the dissolution of the Société, includes plates (planches) for his music and several musical instruments. Most notable are two instruments from cremona: a bass that he used for the opera, and a violin. Plates in pewter for Italian music are listed, "for the duo of L'abbé Stefani, Bononcini etc., that we had made and engraved at common cost." Montéclair's Cremonese instruments and Italian music plates are illustrative of the French attraction to Italian music and string instruments.
The inventory was made at the request of Ballard's widow, Dlle. Catherine Cottin, his son, Christophe-Jean François Ballard, now the only music printer to the King, Charles Claude Trumeau, lawyer to Parliament, and Dame Françoise Catherine Elisabeth Ballard, his wife, all living in the Ballard house on the rue Saint Jean de Beauvais, and Dlle. Elisabeth Catherine Ballard, widow of Sr. François Boivin, merchant, bourgeois de Paris, living on the rue St. Honoré, parish St. Eustache, the three, inheritors, brother and sisters, each for one third of their father's estate. The description and pricing of the estate concerned not only the music, merchandise and tools located at the Ballard house but also material located at his other stops in Paris and at other locations.
Annexed to the general inventory of 47 pages describing the contents of Ballard's house, are three separate inventories: (1) 1e État, the music library, 45 pages, (2) 2e État, the printing and book selling business, 91 pages (fonds de librarie), made up of several sections, books of plainchant, music in the shop, gallerie, and other locations, the plates for engraving music, and general books on history, religion, literature and philosophy (in the store and Ballard's personal library), and (3) the tools and materials for printing, 8 pages. (Plates IV-VIII.)
Ballard died at home on 5 May 1750. The inventory was taken over 16 sessions (vacations), from 11 May to 28 September 1750.
Paris, 26 September 1750."
[Signed] Leclerc. [Charles Nicolas Leclerc (1697-1774), music publisher and violinist.]
We the undersigned, printers, book sellers in Paris, following the pricing made by us of the printing business [fonds de l'imprimerie] of deceased Jean Baptiste Christophe Ballard, having made the pricing and estimation of the fonds de librarie and that of the music, to which pricing we have employed 16 sessions [vacations], and estimated the said fonds de librarie following our conscience, be it known - that of the librarie at the sum of 10,050 livres, not comprising the packages left on deposit with the Queen, and that of the music for which we have called upon Sr. Le Clerc with the consent of the interested parties, at the sum of 20,000 livres. We have in this regard to his estimation: signed and initialed on the present copy, in two parts of which the first contains 45 pages and the second and last 91 pages.
[signed], Paulus Dumesnil
One striking difference
Ballard's personal music library, the 1e État, the focus
this study, and the 2e État, the shop inventory, is that
former contains a large collection of Italian titles, representing
40 percent (pages 25-44) of the 1050 or so works listed, whereas for
latter, Italian music occupies a relatively minor place. Of the 370
named in the 1e État, 88 are Italian and including three
unidentified names: Jacobo Malese, Bernardo Tolini and
Florentio Valentino. Several Flemish and Dutch composers are listed.
(See index of composers.) Only three
Italian composers are listed for the 16th century: Zarlino, Marenzio
Guami; nine for the mid 16th to 17th, 38 for the 17th, and 34 for mid
to 18th century. Given these statistics, and the publication dates of
listed, it becomes clear that the heart of Ballard's Italian collection
music composed in the 17th century. A significant collection of about
methods and treatises is described on pages 16-19; many of these are
methods. Among the works inventoried are found : 90 masses, 78 recueils,
69 sonata titles, and 104 collections of airs.
works, which account for the major portion of the collection, 70 works
engraved and 90 are manuscript.
The 91 pages of the 2e État begin by listing titles in packages indicating the number of examples per package. For example, the motets of Campra are given as four titles in 13 packages equaling 1008 examples. Three packages of masses by Bournonville père, total 534 examples. Thus, although the 2e État contains two times the number of pages, it lists many more times the number of copies. Unlike most inventories that price each item, Ballard's does not. Instead, the total stock and music library are evaluated at 20,000 livres, which is in fact, the exact sum that he and his two sisters each inherited at their father's death. Page 39 lists the sonatas for transverse flute by Quantz and surprisingly, "2. sonates pour la flûte traversière de Ripert," which constitutes the only known reference to these works thus establishing for the first time with certainty Jean-Jacques Rippert as a composer as well as woodwind maker. Published works that are assumed to be by him simply indicate "M. R." (5). In fact, flute music is well-represented in Ballard's library which is indicative of a time in France where the popularity of the solo flute was on the rise, and compared favorably with that of the violin in Italy (6). Pages 69-71 of the inventory of the magazin, list Italian titles showing that Ballard was selling Italian music at his shop. The 27 Italian composers included are named below as they appear in the document (names that also appear in Ballard's music library). Their works represent a range of genres dominated by sacred vocal music (masses, motets, cantatas), and instrumental sonatas, both sacred and secular.
Francesco Antonio Pistocchi, Bassani, Guiseppe Aldovrandi, Gio. Battista Allegri, Giocomo Batistini, Sebastiano Cherici, Pietro Antoni Fiocco, Alexandro Milani, Giovanni Le Grenzi, Francisco Petrobelli, Alexandro Grandi, Romualdo Honorii, Giuseppe Jacchini, Batista Gigli, Batista Mazzaferrata, Carolo Marini, Antonio Morini, Albinoni, Vitali, Bartolomeo Bernardi, R.P. Benedicte, Torelli Veronese, Pietro Degli Antonii, Corelli, Giovanni Bononcini.
The inventory of Ballard's library of books, pages 82 to 91, describes some 482 volumes. Besides the usual volumes of Molière, Corneille, Rousseau, etc., the following titles provide some context to his social milieu:
Reflections sur l'elegance by the same author.
Histoire de la revolution d'Irlande.
Dissertation sur la lotterie.
Amours de Louis le Grand.
Parallèle des Italiens avec des Français en ce qui regard la musique.
L'Histoire de Conseil de Trente.
Défenses des Italiens avec les Français.
Le Nouvel l'art de la guerre.
Les Devoirs des maîtres et des domestiques.
Les moeurs des Israelites.
Evaluation of the printing shop.
Above: A Printer's
1642, Copper engraving by Abraham Bosse, French engraver (b. 1602,
d. 1676, Paris),
The description and pricing of characters, presses and tools for printing was annexed to the general inventory as required by law, and was taken over three sessions from 11 to 15 May 1750 by two distinguished printers and booksellers, Pierre Augustin Paulus Dumesnil, related by marriage to C.J.F. Ballard and André François Le Breton.
Printing shop inventory summary: (Plates IX and X.)
Six printing presses marked A to F valued at 380 livres.
Characters: 45 items weighing 18,098 livres estimated at 5085 livres and 22 items of tools and materials for printing for a grand total of 6092.4 livres.
Here follows a few sample entries for music characters:
Organ tablature, in a case of packages weighing 386 livres, priced at 5 sols [per livre] amounting to 39.5 livres.
Lute tablature in a case
and packages weighing 386 livres, priced 5 sols [per livre]
amounting to the sum of 96.10 livres.
Just prior the final session of 28 September, a fire occurred in the house neighboring Ballard's. Consequently, the contents of Ballard's house and shop on the rue St. Jean de Beauvais were transported for evaluation to the convent of the Jacobins on the rue St. Jacques where he occupied another shop.
Ultimately, this fire would trigger the sale of Montparnasse and the adjoining house owned by Ballard called Bellérophon. Both houses were united under the ownership of Christophe Ballard and valued at 20,000 livres according to the terms of a contract dated 28 October 1672. Christophe's father, Robert Ballard, gained full ownership of Montparnasse under the terms of three separate contracts with family members, the first dated 9 March 1644, with the other two dating from 1659. Bellépheron, which was adjoining to Montparnasse, was purchased over a 10 year period, 1654-1664, from four different owners. The fire, which took place in a building belonging to the nation of Germany, and which shared a wall and foundation with Ballard's properties, caused the "total decline" of both Ballard houses. Thus, on 5 June 1751, Ballard's children and his only inheritors, sold both houses for the sum of 8000 livres to Sieur Guillaume Bellanger, a master mason and building contractor in Paris. The decline in property value, from the original 20,000 livres to 8000 livres, as well as the damage to the contents was devastating. With the end of Montparnasse serving as headquarters of the Ballard firm, came a general reduction in the firm's production and influence. Thus, with the end of Ballard's stewardship of the music business, came the end to its golden era (7).
An inventory, description and pricing of the presses, characters and tools of the printing business was taken after the death of C.J.F. Ballard at his residence on rue des Noyers, parish of St. Bernard. Made at the request of his widow, Dlle. Marie Anne Geneviève Paulus Dumesnil, and his son, Pierre Robert Christophe Ballard, its total value was estimated at 23,050 livres by two distinguished Parisian printers and booksellers, André François Knapen and Michel Lambert on 16 September 1765. In all, they list seven printing presses priced at 1150 livres, characters weighting 22,970 livres priced at 20,212 livres and the tools priced at 2838 livres. The book business (fonds de librarie) was evaluated at 14,145.2 livres. It includes both a collection of books (by writers such as Flechier, Rousseau, Rabelais and La Fontaine, as well as year books, graduels, antiphons and dictionaries, etc.), and a music collection of titles by French composers (for example, Nivers, Dumont, Campra, Corrette, Blainville, Lully, Delalande, Lalouete, Lebègue, Morin, Colasse, Aubert, Brossard). Surprisingly, only a few treatises in multiple copies are listed: Nivers, 135 copies of Méthode de Plainchant at 130 livres, 34 Traité de musique by Masson at 12 livres" and "68 Principe's de la flûte by Obterre [Hotteterre le Romain] at 100 livres." This suggests that Hotteterre's Principes, first published in 1707, with five subsequent Ballard editions of which four were by J.B.C. (1720, 1721, 1722 and 1741), still enjoyed popularity 58 years later. Operas are represented by a collection of opera comiques at 100 livres, and operas priced at 560 livres which include Benserade, Lully, Campra, Colasse and Destouches. Together, the value of the printing business (imprimerie) and book business (fonds de librarie) totaled 37,195.2 livres. The absence of Italian music, and but a few titles of instrumental music stands in sharp contrast to the inventory his father's collection.
Ballard's large collection of solo violin music featuring sonatas, both solo and chamber, and other instrumental works, is largely Italian. Lionnet's article on Sébastien de Brossard's music library focuses attention on well recognized composers who are not included in Brossard's collection. He this finds lacuna puzzling. For example, he points to the absence of works by Monteverdi and Corelli. Ballard's collection invites similar scrutiny, However, are not such objections in part a function of the imposition of modern taste? What seems particularly revealing and informing about Ballard's collection is that it reflects French taste from his perspective which would seem consistent with the mainstream of le gout Français of his time. Further, Ballard's library captures trends in music in France, and in particular, Paris, as they evolved and changed over two centuries, while also showing that counterbalancing these changes was the continual stream of publications of the wildly popular airs and chansons, a vogue which only waned with the French Revolution. The manuscript of Divertissemens pour les soupés du Roy by Delalande offers rare documentation that this specific repertoire in fact existed. The list of 29 cantatelles by Louis Lemaire reminds us that this once popular composer, genre and repertoire, evidently were valued by Ballard. The inventory establishes that Ballard collected both French and Italian music in a balanced fashion, and that he clearly cherished his 17th century collection among which were many works that remained popular well into the 18th century. Although he owned the major writings on the battle that raged between French and Italian style, his collecting depicts a man who knew and appreciated the qualities of each.
From about 1575 onwards, French musicians and instrument makers considered the Italian masters of violin making and playing in the highest esteem. Leading violinists to the King's music, and the 24 violins of the King, sought out the violins of the great Italian masters, Amati and Stradivarius, whose instruments they emulated as they did Italian violin music, most notably, the works of Corelli. The large number of Italian instrumental works for strings that Ballard collected speaks to that preference. As the publisher of much of Hotteterre's music, and his method for flute and musette, Ballard and the great flutist-composer likely enjoyed a long-term friendship. Hotteterre's edition of Torelli's violin sonatas which are found in Ballard's library (p.26), would seem a reflection of their mutual admiration for the Italian in music, and for solo violin works. (Plate XI.)
Ballard's intense involvement in music printing, editing, publishing and collecting spanned more than half a century, c.1696-1750. During this time, he exerted an immeasurable influence not only on what music was published in France, but on musical taste itself. Although his official titles and posts gained through inheritance afforded him the means to accomplish this, it was his personal talent and musical vision that transformed his work to the highest level of musical achievement clearly evidenced through his music library. Regrettably, many of the works Ballard collected today are rarely heard in concert. In light of this, Ballard's collection takes on even greater significance, as it illuminates a detailed panorama of a glorious period of French musical culture instructive of le bon gout contemporary to his time and of a repertoire that needs to be revisited.
The transcription follows the original manuscript and maintains the same pagination. Because of variant and inconsistent use of capitalization and French accents, French accents are regularized. For titles of works, only first words and their definitive articles are capitalized. Spelling appears as in the original which means that variants or errors are not corrected or changed. Considering that the writers of the inventory as well as those who would read it were likely to be less familiar with Italian repertoire than French, Italian title statements are, for the most part, more complete, especially for including date of publication. On the other hand, popular French works are generally noted in brief form. RISM numbers are given only for titles statements of sufficient detail and appear in brackets. In some cases, the year of publication shown in the inventory does not match the edition listed in RISM. In such instances, the RISM number is followed by the RISM date indicating the discrepancy. Where the inventory's version for name of composer is incomplete, in French translation, or in a version other than the authoritative one found either in the New Grove, RISM or Benoit's Dictionnaire, the composer's name is inserted in brackets.
3. All documents cited are from the Minutier Central, Archives Nationales, Paris. They are referred to by document title in the article text and listed in "manuscript sources" where they appear in chronological order.
Société, 11 November 1698, Christophe Ballard and Jean-François Ballard.
Sale, 17 July 1714, Madame de Lully to Jean-Baptiste Christophe Ballard.
Dissolution of Société and obligation, 17 June 1724, François Boivin and Michel Pignolet de Montéclair.
Inventory after death, 16 September 1765, Christophe Jean François Ballard.
Marriage Contract, 2 July, 1724, François Boivin and Catherine Elisabeth Ballard.
Agreement (Traité), 16 June 1739, Jean-Baptiste Christophe Ballard and Christophe Jean François Ballard.
Marriage Contract, 2 July 1739, Christophe Jean François Ballard and Marie Anne Geneviève Paulus Du Mesnil.
Inventory after death, May 11-28, 1750, Jean-Baptiste Christophe Ballard.
Sale, 5 June 1751, Christophe Jean François Ballard to Guillaume Bellanger.
Inventory of the printing
Christophe-Jean François Ballard, 16 September 1765.
Dictionnaire de la Musique en France aux XVIIe et XVIIIe Siècles, edited by Marcelle Benoit. Fayard, 1992.
Duron, Jean. "Aspects de la Presence italienne dans la Musique Françoise de la Fin du XVIIe Siècle." In Le Concert des Muses, Promenade musicale dans le Baroque Français, edited by Jean Lionnet, 97-115. Versailles: 1997.
Giannini, Tula. Great Flute Makers of France, the Lot and Godfroy Families, 1650-1900. London: Tony Bingham, 1993.
Lionnet, Jean. Les Limites de "Gout Italien" de Sébastien de Brossard. In Le Concert des Muses, Promenade musicale dans le Baroque Français, edited by Jean Lionnet, 117-124. Versailles: 1997.
New Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan, 2001.
Schwartz, Judith L. and
Christina L. Schlundt. French Court Music and Dance Music, A Guide
to Primary Source
Writings. New York: Pendragon Press, 1987.